Grade 8

Literary Analysis and Composition

Literary Analysis and Composition is a course designed for students at the end of the middle grades and the beginning of high school (grades 8-9). Throughout this course, students will engage in literary analysis of short stories, poetry, drama, novels, and nonfiction. The course focuses on the interpretation of literary works and the development of oral and written communication skills in standard (formal) English. The program is organized in four strands: Literature, Composition; Grammar, Usage and Mechanics (GUM); and Vocabulary.

Literature

Designed to encourage the appreciation of classic literature, this strand exposes students to both canonical works and less familiar texts and offers a variety of literature to suit diverse tastes. Whether they are reading poetry, drama, autobiography, short stories, or novels, students will be guided through close readings so that they can analyze the formal features of literary texts. Lessons also provide rich background and information to encourage contextual exploration. In this literature program, students read “what’s between the lines” to interpret literature and they go beyond the book to discover how the culture in which a work of literature was created contributes to the themes and ideas it conveys. Students will consider how the struggles, subjects, and ideas they find within these works are relevant to everyday living.

Composition

This strand builds on the skills introduced in Intermediate Composition Courses. In this writing program, students continue to practice writing essays in various genres and increasingly focus on model essays from noteworthy authors. Many units use the literature lessons as a springboard and thereby reinforce the connection between reading for meaning and writing to communicate one’s own ideas.Students learn the form and structure of a variety of essays they will encounter in their academic careers including:memoirs (narrative), literary essays, compare and contrast essays, research papers, descriptive writing, and arguments.In writing each essay, students go through a process of planning, organizing, and revising, and they learn to examine their own writing with a critical eye, paying attention to ideas,organization, structure, style, and correctness. Throughout the course, students write in response to prompts similar to those they will encounter on standardized tests.

Grammer, Usage, and Mechanics

How can a modifier be misplaced or dangling? Is there a positive to appositives? What’s a gerund? The Grammar,Usage, and Mechanics (GUM) course addresses these and many other topics, with reinforcement activities in sentence analysis, sentence structure, and proper punctuation.Students analyze syntax and diagram sentences in order to understand how words, phrases, and clauses function in rK12tion to each other. Skills updates, frequent exercises,cumulative reviews, and regular practice help students absorb the rules so they can confidently apply them in their own writing. The Barrett Kendall Language Handbook provides exercises and a ready resource for grammar rules and conventions.

Vocabulary

Are you implacable or placid? Are you apathetic or empathic? Though these pairs of words are nearly opposite in their meanings, they are closely rK12ted and easily defined by students who know the Latin root,—”pacere”—(to please) and the Greek root pathos (suffering). K¹²’s Vocabulary program uses the Vocabulary from Classical Roots program (from Educator’s Publishing Service) to build knowledge of Greek and Latin words that form the roots of many English words. The purpose of the program is to help students unlock the meanings of words from classical roots, not necessarily to memorize lists of difficult or obscure vocabulary words. These polysyllabic words are those that frequently cause students to stumble and often appear on standardized tests. Throughout this program, students will define and use words with Greek and Latin roots, and use word origins and derivations to determine the meaning of new words, as they increase their own vocabularies and develop valuable test-taking skills.

Details:

  • Course Length: 1 year – 180 Lessons – 60 minutes
  • Curriculum Provider: K12
  • Prerequisites: Intermediate Language Arts B or a seventh grade Language Arts equivalent.
  • Required Materials: Required materials will be shipped to your door though some lessons require additional resources, including common household items and books that are readily available online or in your local library.

Language Arts 8

In this course, students build on their knowledge and blossom as thoughtful readers and clear, effective writers. A balance of literary and informational texts engage students throughout the course in reading critically, analyzing texts, and citing evidence to support claims. Students sharpen their vocabulary, grammar, and listening skills through lessons designed to provide explicit modeling and ample opportunities to practice. Students also routinely write responses to texts they have read, and use more extensive, process-based lessons to produce full-length essays in narrative, informative, analytical, and argumentative formats. In this full-year course, students develop a mastery of reading, writing, and language arts skills.

Details:

  • Course Length: Two Semesters
  • Curriculum Provider: Edgenuity
  • Prerequisites: Seventh Grade Language Arts
  • Required Materials: None

Math 8

The course begins with a unit on input-output relationships that builds a foundation for learning about functions. Students make connections between verbal, numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of relations and apply this knowledge to create linear functions that can be used to model and solve mathematical and real-world problems. Technology is used to build deeper connections among representations. Students focus on formulating expressions and equations, including modeling an association in bivariate data with a linear equation, and writing and solving linear equations and systems of linear equations. Students develop a deeper understanding of how translations, rotations, reflections, and dilations of distances and angles affect congruency and similarity. Students develop rules of exponents and use them to simplify exponential expressions. Students extend rules of exponents as they perform operations with numbers in scientific notation. Estimating and comparing square roots of non-perfect squares to perfect squares exposes students to irrational numbers and lays the foundation for applications such as the Pythagorean Theorem, distance, and volume.

Details:

  • Course Length: Two Semesters
  • Curriculum Provider: Edgenuity
  • Prerequisites: Seventh Grade Math
  • Required Materials: None

Science 8: Physical Science

K¹²’s Middle School Physical Science course presents the fundamentals of physics and chemistry. Students explore the amazing universe we live in, including motion, energy, the nature of matter and atoms, how chemicals mix and react, and the forces that hold the universe together.

Among other subjects, students study:

  • Structure of atoms
  • Elements and the Periodic Table
  • Chemical reactions
  • Forces, including gravitational, motion, acceleration, and mass
  • Energy, including light, thermal, electricity, and magnetism

Details:

  • Course Length: 1 year – 108 Lessons – 60 minutesIf you teach Science twice a week, you can comfortably complete the program within a school year.
  • Curriculum Provider: K12
  • Prerequisites: Seventh Grade Science
  • Required Materials:Required materials will be shipped to your door though some lessons require additional resources, including common household items and books that are readily available online or in your local library.

Science 8: Advanced Physical Science

Advanced Physical Science is a rigorous middle school course, conceived for the enthusiastic science student who is ready for an extra challenge.

Students learn about the physical world and tackle topics such as matter, energy, atoms, motion, thermodynamics and other aspects of chemistry and physics. Practical, hands-on lesson activities help students discover how scientists investigate the living world. Students perform laboratory activities and a full unit investigation to learn about the application of scientific methods. Students will study:

  • Problem solving in chemistry and physics
  • Matter and its properties
  • Chemistry, from atoms to chemical reactions
  • Motion, including harmonics and projectiles
  • Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
  • Types of energy
  • Laws of thermodynamics
  • Light and sound
  • Electricity and magnetis

Details:

  • Course Length: 1 year – 108 Lessons – 60 minutesIf you teach Science twice a week, you can comfortably complete the program within a school year.
  • Curriculum Provider: K12
  • Prerequisites: Seventh Grade Science
  • Required Materials:Required materials will be shipped to your door though some lessons require additional resources, including common household items and books that are readily available online or in your local library.

History 8: Intermediate World History B – Our Modern World, 1400 to 1917

Continuing a survey of World History from prehistoric to modern times, K¹² online lessons and assessments complement the second volume of The Human Odyssey, a textbook series developed and published by K¹².

This course focuses on the story of the past from the fourteenth century to 1917 and the beginning of World War I. The course is organized chronologically and, within broad eras, regionally. Lessons explore developments in religion, philosophy, the arts, and science and technology.

The course introduces geography concepts and skills as they appear in the context of the historical narrative. Major topics of study include:

  • The cultural rebirth of Europe in the Renaissance
  • The Reformation and Counter-Reformation
  • The rise of Islamic empires
  • Changing civilizations in China, Japan, and Russia
  • The Age of Exploration, and the civilizations that had been flourishing in the Americas for hundreds of years prior to encounters with Europeans
  • The changes that came with the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
  • Democratic revolutions of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
  • The Industrial Revolution and its consequences
  • Nineteenth century nationalism and imperialism
  • The remarkable transformations in communications and society at the turn of the twentieth century

Details:

  • Course Length: 1 year – 180 Lessons – 60 minutes
  • Curriculum Provider: K12
  • Prerequisites: None
  • Required Materials:Required materials will be shipped to your door though some lessons require additional resources, including common household items and books that are readily available online or in your local library.

Civics, Government, and Economics

Exploring the structure of the United States government on a national, state, and local level, this course challenges students to learn and understand fundamental concepts and philosophies that led to the creation of the United States Constitution. Students enrolled in this two-semester course analyze the political process, political parties, and influences that affect them both. Engaging, interactive content introduces economic concepts and encourages students to explore government and economics on a global scale. By instilling a thorough understanding of government and economics, this course inspires students to investigate what it means to be an American citizen.

Details:

  • Course Length: Two Semesters
  • Curriculum Provider: Edgenuity
  • Prerequisites: None
  • Required Materials: None

U.S. History

Offering an interactive and comprehensive overview of American history, this course engages and inspires students to learn about the rich and diverse history of America’s native peoples, early European colonization and settlement in America, and the creation of a new nation through the American Revolution. Middle school students enrolled in this course will closely examine major changes brought about by the nation’s reconstruction, industrialization, urbanization, and progressive reforms and consider the implications each of these events had on the expansion of the United States’ global influence through modern times. Over the course of two semesters, interesting course content encourages students to think carefully about the challenges and opportunities facing the United States in the 21st century.

Details:

  • Course Length: Two Semesters
  • Curriculum Provider: Edgenuity
  • Prerequisites: None
  • Required Materials: None

Art 8: Intermediate World Art B

Intermediate Art: World B is designed to complement the World History: Our Modern World, 1400 to 1917 course. Following the timeline of the K¹² History program, lessons introduce students to the artists, cultures, and great works of world art and architecture from Renaissance through modern times.

  • Study and create various works of art from the Renaissance and beyond
  • Discover great works of art and see how they influenced later artists
  • Compare and contrast works from many civilizations, from paintings to sculpture, architecture, book covers, prints, and more
  • Analyze how artists use elements like color and shape, and principles like balance and pattern, to create pleasing designs and compositions
  • Study the various techniques and processes to produce different effects in drawings, paintings, prints, and sculptures
  • Learn how artists decorate objects like book covers, wallpaper, and fabrics
  • Create artworks inspired by works they learn about, using many materials and techniques; for example, after studying the Tempietto by Bramante and Fallingwater by Frank Lloyd Wright, students design their own model of a building. And after studying expressive portrait paintings by Rembrandt, Judith Leyster, and Pablo Picasso, they make expressive self-portraits

Details:

  • Course Length: 1 year – 72 Lessons – 45 minutes
  • Curriculum Provider: K12
  • Prerequisites: Intermediate World Art A
  • Required Materials: Required materials will be shipped to your door though some lessons require additional resources, including common household items and books that are readily available online or in your local library.

Middle School French II

Students continue their introduction to French with fundamental building blocks in four key areas of foreign language study: listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing.

The course consists of 180 lesson days formatted in an intuitive calendar view, which can be divided into two 90-day semesters. The course represents an ideal blend of language learning pedagogy and online learning. As students begin the course, they construct their own Avatar that accumulates “Avatar bucks”—by performing well on course tasks—to use to purchase materials (clothing, gadgets, scenery, etc.) at the “Avatar store”. Each unit consists of an ongoing adventure story, a new vocabulary theme and grammar concept, numerous interactive games reinforcing vocabulary and grammar, reading and listening comprehension activities, speaking and writing activities, and multimedia cultural presentations covering major French-speaking areas in Europe and across the globe. The course has been carefully aligned to national standards as set forth by ACTFL (the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages).

Details:

  • Course Length: Two Semesters – 90 hours to complete each semester.
  • Curriculum Provider: K12
  • Prerequisites: None
  • Required Materials: Requires Flash Plugin, French-English Dictionary is recommended

Middle School Spanish II

Students continue their introduction to Spanish with fundamental building blocks in four key areas of foreign language study: listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing.

The course consists of 180 lesson days formatted in an intuitive calendar view, which can be divided into two 90-day semesters and represents an ideal blend of language learning pedagogy and online learning. As students begin the course, they construct their own Avatar that accumulates “Avatar bucks”—by performing well on course tasks—to use to purchase items (clothing, gadgets, scenery, etc.) at the “Avatar store”. Each Unit consists of an ongoing adventure story, a new vocabulary theme and grammar concept, numerous interactive games reinforcing vocabulary and grammar, reading and listening comprehension activities, speaking and writing activities, and multimedia cultural presentations covering major Spanish-speaking areas in Europe and the Americas. The course has been carefully aligned to national standards as set forth by ACTFL (the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages).

Details:

  • Course Length: Two Semesters – 90 hours to complete each semester.
  • Curriculum Provider: K12
  • Prerequisites: None
  • Required Materials: Requires Flash Plugin, Spanish-English Dictionary is recommended

Middle School German II

Students continue their introduction to German with fundamental building blocks in four key areas of foreign language study: listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing.

The course consists of 180 lesson days formatted in an intuitive calendar view, which can be divided into two 90-day semesters. The course represents an ideal blend of language learning pedagogy and online learning. As students begin the course, they construct their own Avatar that accumulates “Avatar bucks”—by performing well on course tasks—to use to purchase materials (clothing, gadgets, scenery, etc.) at the “Avatar store”. Each unit consists of an ongoing adventure story, a new vocabulary theme and grammar concept, numerous interactive games reinforcing vocabulary and grammar, reading and listening comprehension activities, speaking and writing activities, and multimedia cultural presentations covering major German-speaking areas in Europe. The course has been carefully aligned to national standards as set forth by ACTFL (the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages).

Details:

  • Course Length: Two Semesters – 90 hours to complete each semester.
  • Curriculum Provider: K12
  • Prerequisites: None
  • Required Materials: Requires Flash Plugin, German-English Dictionary is recommended

Middle School Latin II

Students continue their introduction to Latin with fundamental building blocks in four key areas of foreign language study: listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. The course consists of 180 lesson days formatted in an intuitive calendar view, which can be divided into two 90-day semesters and represents an ideal blend of language learning pedagogy and online learning. As students begin the course, they construct their own Avatar that accumulates “Avatar bucks”—by performing well on course tasks—to use to purchase items (virtual clothing, gadgets, scenery, etc.) at the “Avatar store”. Each unit consists of a new vocabulary theme and grammar concept, numerous interactive games reinforcing vocabulary and grammar, reading and listening comprehension activities, speaking and writing activities, and cultural presentations covering significant aspects of Roman culture or their modern-day manifestations, and assessments. The course has been carefully aligned to national standards as set forth by ACTFL (the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages).

Details:

  • Course Length: Two Semesters – 90 hours to complete each semester.
  • Curriculum Provider: K12
  • Prerequisites: None
  • Required Materials: Requires Flash Plugin, Latin-English Dictionary is recommended

Middle School Chinese II

Students continue their introduction to Chinese with fundamental building blocks in four key areas of foreign language study: listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. The course consists of 180 lesson days formatted in an intuitive calendar view, which can be divided into two 90-day semesters. The course represents an ideal blend of language learning pedagogy and online learning. As students begin the course, they construct their own Avatar that accumulates “Avatar bucks”—by performing well on course tasks—to use to purchase materials (clothing, gadgets, scenery, etc.) at the “Avatar store”. Each Unit consists of an ongoing adventure story, a new vocabulary theme and grammar concept, numerous interactive games reinforcing vocabulary and grammar, reading and listening comprehension activities, speaking and writing activities, and multimedia cultural presentations covering major Chinese-speaking countries. The course has been carefully aligned to national standards as set forth by ACTFL (the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages).

Details:

  • Course Length: Two Semesters – 90 hours to complete each semester
  • Curriculum Provider: K12
  • Prerequisites: None
  • Required Materials: Requires Flash Plugin, Chinese-English Dictionary is recommended